Research References

1. IGF-1 Can Improve Immune Response and Vice Versa

From Velvet Deer Antler: The Ultimate Antiaging Supplement, Dr. Alex Duarte, O.D., Ph.D. p. 46.

An interesting relationship between IGF-1 and the immune system has been uncovered in recent research. The activity between all of the major immune cell types such as T-cells and B-cells, natural killer cells, and macrophages have been shown to be altered by growth. Studies have shown that IGF-1 can be produced within the immune system. Thus, not only the liver but white blood cells are capable of producing IGF-1. This provides a biochemical basis for a line of communication between the immune system and the neuroendrocrine system.

Also See WebMD’s Deer Velvet Overview Information

2. IGF-1 Improves Heart Function

From Velvet Deer Antler: The Ultimate Antiaging Supplement, Dr. Alex Duarte, O.D., Ph.D. pp. 30, 44, 68.

Clifford et al (1979) measured the effect of alcohol velvet antler extract on a number of cardiac measures including cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, arterial pressure, and central venous pressure in anesthetized dogs. They found significant increases in stroke volume, compared with untreated dogs, but no other consistent, significant changes were observed. Sanoet al (1972) found that velvet antler extract (V AE) reduced heart rate in isolated guinea pig atria. In contrast Reshetrikova(1954) found that V AE improved the operation of the heart (increased pulse and heart tone) in sick children. This may be consistent with an overall tonic effect rather than a specific effect on the heart itself.

Tevi (1969) studied the acute hypotensive effect of alcohol velvet antler extract. His crucial finding was that velvet antler extract acted on the peripheral vascular system through the parasympathetic nervous system. In doing so velvet antler extract could counteract the effect of previously administered adrenalin. The author concluded that velvet antler extract acted in a manner similar to a cholinergic substance. It can be concluded, at this stage, that velvet antler extract acts like a heart tonic and may influence blood pressure by acting on peripheral blood vessels and the kidney.

In the previous section, evidence was given that velvet antler extract acted to lower blood pressure acutely by acting on the peripheral vascular system. Albov (1969) presented case histories of treatment for high and low blood pressure in a wide variety of patients. He neatly side-stepped the mechanism by stating that velvet antler extract effects varied with the condition of the patients’ nervous system. He did indicate that treatment with velvet antler was more successful in patients which had not suffered perturbation in blood pressure for an extended period (10 years or more). Albov studied 32 patients with high blood pressure caused by early onset menopause or obesity. They were treated with velvet antler extract either orally or by injection for 20 or 30 days respectively and then examined by a physician. Twenty-six of the patients had measurably lower blood pressure and reported an improvement in the condition. Those reporting no improvement had high blood pressure for an extended period of 9 to 10 years. The same author also studied the effects of velvet antler extract on 13 patients with hypertension caused by disorders of heart muscle activity. The patients were given 20 daily injections of velvet antler extract and were examined 10 days after the final treatment. Eleven of the patients showed an improvement (84%). In both studies dose levels were 2 milliliters per day by injection or 4.5 milliliters orally. Mainly female patients were studied but successful treatment of men were also reported. In women treated for premature menopause, menses returned in most. One serious deficiency was that there was no data from control patients presented; this means that the findings, although promising are not conclusive yet. Wang (1996) has shown that one active ingredient in terms of hypotensive action from velvet antler is lysophosphatidylcholine.

Also See WebMD’s Deer Velvet Overview Information

3. IGF-1 and Its Ability To Help Stimulate Damaged Nerves

From Velvet Deer Antler: The Ultimate Antiaging Supplement, Dr. Alex Duarte, O.D., Ph.D. p. 67.

One of the most exciting uses for IGF-1 is the potential repair of nerve damage that occurs in injury or illness. When a nerve is damaged in the arm or leg the connection to muscle tissue is dramatically impaired. As a result, there is a loss of movement and a wasting of the affected muscle tissue. These nerves can regenerate to some extent. Severe damage of more than one-half inch may result in permanent injury. However, IGF-1 has repaired and reconnected severed nerve endings up to a distance of six millimeters. This has never, heretofore, been done.

In studies where nerve cells have been placed in culture tubes, IGF -1 has been shown to have remarkable growth effects on spinal cord motor neurons. It increased motor neuron activity in spinal cultures by 150 to 270%. In addition to this, it significantly decreased the preprogrammed cell death in developing chick embryos. In certain animal studies it had a direct effect in stimulating nerve axons of the spinal cord motor neurons to regenerate. It increased intramuscular nerve sprouting 10-fold when it was given to normal adult rats. According to Swedish scientist Hans-Arne Hannson of the Institute of Neuro Biology at the University of Goteborg, IGF-1 by itself or in combination with other growth factors, could stimulate nerve regeneration.

The implications of these early studies are absolutely enormous. If IGF-1 can regenerate spinal cord motor neurons, it may be able to treat one of the most devastating, fatal diseases known called amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS is a devastating disease in which the loss of cortical motor neurons results incomplete paralysis and death. It may be useful in many other diseases that affect peripheral nerves. Remember, only velvet antler extract has a high level of natural IGF-1 and neurotrophin the nerve growth factor.

Also See WebMD’s Deer Velvet Overview Information

4. IGF-1 May Promote Healthy, Flexible Joints

From Velvet Deer Antler: The Ultimate Antiaging Supplement, Dr. Alex Duarte, O.D., Ph.D. pp. 12, 27, 31.

Velvet antler is made up of primarily cartilage. Scientific research has now demonstrated that cartilage, bovine, chicken, shark, and antler cartilage, is producing dramatic results in the treatment of the most degenerative and life threatening diseases including cancer. Cartilage has proven to be safe and effective in the treatment of psoriasis, eczema, colitis, enteritis, poison ivy/oak, acne, varicose ulcers, pruritis ani, fistulas, hemorrhoids, wound healing, phlebitis, cold sores, shingles, lupus ulcers, and cancer. Cartilage is an acidic mucopolysaccharide/protein complex containing collagen and glycosaminoglycans, including chondroitin sulfate A, B, and C. These compounds and others make cartilage:

  1. One of the most powerful, natural anti-inflammatory agents and wound healing substances known.
  2. A stimulant for the cellular and humoral components of our immune system. This makes it effective against bacterial, viral, and fungal infections.
  3. An inhibitor of cell division in malignant or benign tumors.

Stronger and Accelerated Wound Healing: Dr. Prudden and J. Allen, M.D., showed cartilage-treated wounds increased the overall wound tensile strength by 42% over the control group. 13 Also, cartilage-treated wounds healed faster than than normal with cartilage.14

Seven hundred moderate to advanced osteoarthritic patients were treated with oral bovine cartilage at 9 grams per day. Fifty-nine percent were totally relieved, 26% had a good response, eight percent had a fair response, and only seven percent had a poor response. 16

Cartilage Study: In a five-year double blind study on 147 patients at the Department of Internal Medicine and Rheumatology at the Polyclinic of the Medical Faculty of Charles University in Czechoslovakia, Dr. V. Rejholec showed an 85% reduction in pain scores in the cartilage group compared to a five percent reduction in pain in the group treated with standard drugs (NSAID: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). More significantly, there was 63% less joint degeneration in the cartilage treated group.17

Rheumatoid Arthritis: Dr. John F. Prudden treated nine patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis with an average of 500 cubic centimeters of subcutaneously injected bovine cartilage. Three had excellent results while six had good results. This shows there was a 100% effective response rate. Realize no other medicine has ever produced these kinds of results; all of the patients in the study suffered severe pain and stiffness in multiple joints, primarily the knees, wrists, elbows, hips, and fingers.18 Oral preparations of shark cartilage are currently producing similar results.19

Human Cancer Studies: The landmark study of cartilage therapy for cancer began in 1974 when Dr. John Prudden was granted a study protocol by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. All of the patients had failed with chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. The following types of cancers were treated by Dr. Prudden: breast, cervix, ovary, prostate, lung, liver, bone, stomach, pancreas, brain, thyroid, and Hodgkin’s Disease (lymph).20 Ninety percent of the patients had a positive response and some of the cures were achieved fastest when chemotherapy was combined with cartilage. In fact, cartilage protected the patients from the severe side effects of chemotherapy. 21 Thus cartilage may be taken and should be taken with standard forms of treatment.

Dr. Prudden’s study was conducted with bovine (calf) cartilage. It appears the health benefits from cartilage is not species specific. Cartilage from cows, sharks, chickens, and now deer antler appears to have medicinal value.

Also See WebMD’s Deer Velvet Overview Information

5. IGF-1 Helps Promote A Healthy Prostate

From Velvet Deer Antler: The Ultimate Antiaging Supplement, Dr. Alex Duarte, O.D., Ph.D. pp. 74-75.

In his book Dr. Ronald Klatz, president of the American Academy of Antiaging Medicine, reported on the patients treated by Dr. Chein and Terry with IGF 1 injections. Of 800 patients the only side effects that had been reported were minor joint aches and pains and some fluid retention. These symptoms disappeared in the first couple of months. More significantly was the fact that there were no reported cases of cancer among all 800 patients treated at their clinic.

Even so, you would think with 800 people over the age of 40-years-old, given the normal incidence of cancer, some of these people would certainly get the disease. It could be that there is some sort of protective effect, probably through the immune system.

Even more compelling in this study was the fact that PSA levels as a marker of prostate problems including cancer did not increase among any of the male patients. In one case study, with Chein and Terry, IGF 1 actually seemed to have reversed the course of the prostate cancer. The patient came to see Dr. Chein with a PSA level of over 50, normal being 0 to 4 and men with cancer usually having a PSA level in the l0s or 20s. The diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was confirmed by a needle biopsy. Although existing cancer is normally a contraindication for hormone replacement therapy, the patient did refuse surgery and urged Dr. Chein to treat him by helping to raise IGF 1 levels as well as DHEA, melatonin, but not testosterone. In a short period of time the man’s PSA levels came down to between 5 and 7. This is absolutely spectacular as the disease has gone into remission. Dr. Chein speculates that through the immune stimulation, natural killer cells were effectively able to destroy the cancer cells.

Also See WebMD’s Deer Velvet Overview Information

6. IGF-1 Helps Promote Sexual Performance and Function by Raising Libido

From Velvet Deer Antler: The Ultimate Antiaging Supplement, Dr. Alex Duarte, O.D., Ph.D. pp. 50-51.

Hormones released from the hypothalamus are literally the controlling factor that determines the rhythms of the male sexual function. GnRH is secreted in older men by slow mild pulses. One of the problems associated with aging men is that instead of a strong pulse of LH being poured into the blood and resulting in testosterone elevation, LH release follows the same sluggish rhythm which is translated into reduced testosterone production by the testicles and, of course, diminished sexual function. It appears the Chinese knew what they were doing some 2,000 years ago because of the LH enhancing and thus testosterone enhancing properties of deer antler velvet.

Dr. Ben-Xiang Wang and his associates discovered several other attributes of antler velvet that may be indirectly associated with sexual performance. The researchers also noted in the blood work of senescent mice that a particular kind of free radical by-product called malondialdehyde-like substance was decreased in the animals that received the antler velvet. These are basically toxic by-products of free radical reactions and can damage DNA resulting in a reduced life span due to age-related heart disease, cancer, and deterioration of multiple physiological systems. Another observation of this group was that there was a marked increase in liver function. The liver is an extremely important organ which is literally the detoxification system, the carbohydrate and protein metabolizing organ of the body. There was a noted increase in proteins in the liver especially in the activity of a particular enzyme, called superoxide dismutase (SOD), that destroys free radicals. 31

In conjunction with research results, several people have had excellent responses with the velvet antler. As an example, Mr. E. Downey of Anchorage, Alaska, writes, “Initially, I started using antler to increase my energy levels; this it does. But I have also noticed I am able to maintain an erection after I ejaculate, which is something I hadn’t been able to do for a long time. Antler definitely builds endurance, you know, the staying power!”

Mr. L. Brake, aged 56, of Wichita, Kansas, says, “I believe the antler product has helped to lower my blood pressure. I use this product specifically for my blood pressure, but I also enjoy the sexual enhancement benefits as a side bonus. I think anyone can benefit from velvet antler!”

Recently New Zealand research isolated a substance in antler that could lower high blood pressure called lysophosphitidyl choline.

Also See WebMD’s Deer Velvet Overview Information

7. IGF-1 Supports Healthy Weight Loss Regimens

From Velvet Deer Antler: The Ultimate Antiaging Supplement, Dr. Alex Duarte, O.D., Ph.D. pp. 30, 70.

One of the big problems associated with losing weight, especially with calorie restriction, is a significant loss in muscle mass when there is a commensurate loss of fat. Any procedure that can preserve lean muscle body mass when fat loss is being experienced, would be most helpful and certainly improve the health of the patient during the weight loss procedure. According to Doctor Edmund Chein, patients who were obese and were given human injects to help raise IGF 1 levels lost up to 12% of their body fat every six months. As an example, a patient that weighed 200 pounds could lose 24 pounds of fat every six months. We know that IGF 1 helps increase the fat burning mechanism of the body. It not only preserves muscle tissue but increases muscle mass. IGF-1 may also improve the fat burning mechanism and improve hormonal weight loss effects without having to restrict calorie consumption.

Studies have shown that the aging pituitary helps produce as much IGF 1 as it did when the individual was younger. However, the ability to release the IGF 1 is somehow blocked as the body ages. Something happens in the feedback loop between the release of IGF-1 in the liver and the hypothalamus in the brain. Ordinarily, a reduction in the IGF-1 tells the brain to direct the pituitary to help increaes IGF 1 but this feedback loop breaks down with age. For this reason there should be no negative feedback loop problems associated with just taking IGF-1 since the mechanism in the aging person is already diminished. It would also indicate that IGF-1 should be taken in order to preserve muscle mass, increase energy levels, and maintain proper body weight.

Also See WebMD’s Deer Velvet Overview Information

8. The Research of IGF-1 And Athletes

From Velvet Deer Antler: The Ultimate Antiaging Supplement, Dr. Alex Duarte, O.D., Ph.D. pp. 21, 32, 61-63.

By Alex Duarte, Ph.D. and John Abdo

The Research of IGF-1 And Athletes in 1989, fitness expert John Abdo, who hosts a nationwide TV fitness show, visited the Institute of Physical Culture in Moscow for an intensive two week investigation of the training programs of Russian athletes. At that time, John met with former Soviet weight-lifting champion Victor Sheynkin and training expert Yuri Verhoshansky. Sheynkin, who weighed only 132 pounds, could snatch over 286 pounds and clean & jerk over 360 pounds (both overhead lifts) and had became a Soviet Olympic coach, while Professor Verhoshansky had master minded numerous strength and conditioning routines for Soviet athletes since the early 1950s.

Later, in the United states, John met with Dr. Alex Duarte, who has been a pioneer in the movement to persuade athletes to replace the use of steroids with natural, safer products capable of promoting strength, endurance, and improved recuperation from injury. John told Alex that the Russian experts had revealed that their athletes had experienced considerable improvement in performance with a natural, non-toxic substance called Velvet Deer Antler.

John said that the Russians had given him two boxes of Velvet Deer Antler and that, when he returned home, he had given these boxes to a friend who was 12 weeks away from a major world power lifting championship, and who then used them to help in breaking several world records. Further research led both John and Alex to make this extraordinary product available to Americans. What follows is their report on Velvet Deer Antler.

IGF-1 Levels Decline With Age

In scientific studies analyzing the medical properties of Velvet Deer Antler, Dr. Peter Fennessy, General Manager of the Invermay Research Center in New Zealand found that antler extracts improved cell growth and also produced anti-tumor and anti-viral effects. During an investigation into the factors that make antlers grow, the Invermay group measured a natural hormone factor called “Growth Factor-1″ or “IGF-1″ High levels of IGF-1 were found in deer blood during the antler growth period as well as IGF-1 receptors in the antlers. Dr. Fennessey’s team also discovered that the IGF-1 and IGF-2 (a related hormone) promoted growth in laboratory cell lines from mice.’ When we are young, we have a relatively healthy concentration of human IGF 1. In our teenage years, most of us are slim and lean, with low body fat and good musculature. IGF 1 influences lean body mass. As we age, our IGF 1 levels decrease, which causes muscular atrophy. Velvet Deer Antler is a natural source of growth factors, which can improve muscular development.


Scientists can only speculate about Dr. Fennessey’s findings, which may explain (to some degree) the anabolic (helps build muscle and repair tissue without steroids) properties of Velvet Deer Antler. If there are high concentrations of hormone like substances in blood, tissues, and bone, accelerated tissue repair after trauma such as intense exercise can be induced by Velvet Deer Antler. But the most important consideration is the cartilaginous concentration of the antler itself. Researchers such as Dr. John F. Prudden discovered (more than 35 years ago) that cartilage contains an element called N-Acetyl-Glucosamine, which has been demonstrated to accelerate wound healing significantly.

Cartilage also contains glycosaminoglycans, the up-regulators of cartilage production and turnover. It is also a very powerful regulator of synoviocytes, which regulate the integrity of the joint fluid. Perhaps this is the primary reason that arthritics are helped so much by shark cartilage and Velvet Deer Antler.

In 1974, two Russian doctors found that Pantocrine (the Soviet version of Velvet Deer Antler) improved the performance of average, healthy sportsmen (athletes). Unadministered athletes on the exercise cycle performed 15 kg/m of dynamic work, whereas those given Pantocrine increased dramatically to 74 kg/m of dynamic work. This is truly a remarkable increase in performance. Another Russian scientist, Dr. Taney, showed in 1964 that the mental capacity of young men (as indicated by a mathematical test) improved significantly following the administration of Velvet Deer Antler.10

Another ingredient found in Velvet Deer Antler cartilage is Chondroitin Sulfate A, an extremely powerful anti inflammatory agent shown by Dr. Lester Morrison (over 10 years ago) to reverse arteriosclerosis and dramatically improve circulation. Dr. Morrison conducted a six year study demonstrating that Chondroitin Sulfate A reduces the incidence of fatal heart attacks and strokes by more than 400%!


For twelve years, Dr. Arkady Koltun, M.D., Ph.D., Chairman of the Medical Committee for the Russian Bodybuilding Federation, conducted research into anabolic (helps build muscle and repair tissue without steroids) agents that can improve performance, strength, and musculature in Russian athletes. In studies with Russian kayakers, weigh/lifters, bodybuilders, and power lifters, Dr. Koltun found that Velvet Deer Antler is myotropic (increases muscular strength). He also found that it has powerful neurotropic (nerve strengthening) properties and is beneficial in treating infectious diseases, fatigue, and hypertension.

Dr. Koltun revealed that Pantocrine has induced significant increases in endurance in his athletes. After using Pantocrlne in the pre-Olympic festival in Russia, two of Dr. Koltuns’ top kayakers and a world in canoeing achieved remarkably improved results. These sportsmen not only stabilized their racing time one week before competition, but dramatically increased their speed in rowing. All received gold medals and established new world records. Dr. Koltun went on to describe an interesting phenomenon that occurs in athletes that are overtrained, even in young athletes. He explained that when athletes train too hard they develop an electrolyte imbalance in the heart muscle, in which there is a loss of recovery and endurance. He calls this condition “Myocardial Dystrophy”and explained that electrocardiograms show dysphasic and extreme negative T-wave readings, which is an image of ventricular repolarization of the cardiac ventricles.

Dr. Koltun contends that sportsmen (and women) with myocardial dystrophy have a problem with myocardial repolarization and that this, in turn, significantly limits their performance. But there is a good prognosis for them if they lay off their training activity for two weeks. When Pantocrine was given along with inosine and vitamin B-6, he was able to decrease the time of recovery to ten days. In other words, the athletes’ recovery time was dramatically reduced. This allowed the athletes to participate in many competitions, with short recuperation periods in between.

Dr. Koltun also mentioned that one of the most significant attributes of Velvet Deer Antler is the discovery of Dr. Ivan Kinia, who co-authored several studies from the Siberian institution known as Blagoveshemska in 1989. It was shown that among the main bio active substances in deer antler are the anti-inflammatory prostaglandins, which are especially effective in people who suffer from arthritis.

In addition to regulating and improving every major body function, IGF-1 Plus™ improves brain function and promotes a better night’s sleep, thus improving energy levels.

9. IGF-1 Promotes Healthy Skin and Helps Reduce the Appearance of Wrinkles

From Velvet Deer Antler: The Ultimate Antiaging Supplement, Dr. Alex Duarte, O.D., Ph.D.

IGF 1 like testosterone, estrogen, melatonin, and DHEA, decline in production with age. While some of these hormones can reduce the effects of aging, only IGF-1 go far beyond the scope of the other hormones not only to prevent biological aging but also to reverse a broad range of symptoms associated with aging and even certain diseases of aging. For the more youthful bodybuilding enthusiasts, only IGF-1 ultimately builds enormous muscle tissue. If you are interested in building muscle tissue, increasing strength and endurance, and turning back the aging clock by 20 or more years, be ye young or be ye old, IGF-1 is the secret of the fountain of youth.

Somatotropin is the primary hormone produced and secreted by the pituitary gland. Its production peaks during adolescence which accelerates body growth. By the time a person reaches the age of 60 he or she may only secrete 25% of the amount secreted when they were 20-years-old. Most of the time IGF-1 is released in apulsatile fashion during sleep or following strenuous physical activity. It is quickly converted in the liver to a powerful growth promoting metabolite known as IGF-1.

The decline of IGF 1 with age is directly associated with certain aging signs like wrinkling of the skin, graying of the hair, decreased energy and sexual function, increased body fat, heart disease, weak and brittle bones, and much more. The good news is that IGF-1 can reverse these physical signs and restore energy levels, bone strength, hair color, more youthful appearing skin, and for most people reading this report, an increased, youthful muscle mass simultaneously significantly reducing body fat.

Now, IGF-1 derived from velvet antler may be the answer that all bodybuilders and our senior citizens have been looking for, an answer that may even promote greater health and extend life.

10. IGF-1 Helps Reduce Inflammation

From Velvet Deer Antler: The Ultimate Antiaging Supplement, Dr. Alex Duarte, O.D., Ph.D. p. 21.

Researchers have concluded from many scientific studies that deer antler velvet contains very powerful anti-inflammatory agents which assist in reducing the pain and inflammation of a variety of degenerative diseases, including arthritis and other diseases that cause pain. In fact, if we look at the anecdotal reports of individuals having used antler, we find that arthritis and inflammatory diseases that induce pain are perhaps the most commonly controlled disorders with the use of velvet antler.

11. IGF-1 Helps Boost Energy Levels and Increase Endurance

From Velvet Deer Antler: The Ultimate Antiaging Supplement, Dr. Alex Duarte, O.D., Ph.D. pp. 14-17, 30, 32, 59-63.

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study on human athletes using IGF-1 was conducted by the Ag Research Invermay and the School of Physical Education at the University of Otago in Dunedin.

The study involved 24 male volunteers with an average age of 21.4-years-old. By the time the study was finished, there were 11 athletes in each group - the therapeutic group and the placebo group. Both were given only 70 milligrams of velvet antler for about 10 weeks. Now realize, this is an exceptionally small dose especially compared to animal studies where significantly greater amounts were used. All of the subjects were tested twice during the pre-training and twice after the 10 weeks strength training sessions. Strength performance tests were carried out using resistance training apparatus. Muscular endurance tests were conducted using a Biodex Isokinetic Dynamoneter.

The results demonstrated a strong trend. The increase in total work done by extension muscles which were specifically trained during the study of the extract group was thought to be twice that of the placebo. This supports the claim that velvet antler can help work towards boosting muscle activity and reduce body fat.

13. Fibromyalgia

From Velvet Deer Antler: The Ultimate Antiaging Supplement, Dr. Alex Duarte, O.D., Ph.D. pp. 87-88.

A recent clinical study on 40 patients lasting eight months was conducted by V. James de Franco, M.D., at the Toledo Center for Clinical Research, with the following results: 90-95% of participants overcame fatigue with better work performance. Five participants with fibromyalgia had less pain, better sleep patterns and much more energy.

There was a dramatic weight loss experienced by about 40% of participants ranging from 35-47 pounds. This occurred more in post menopausal women. Other benefits ranged from reduced chronic pain, lowered cholesterol levels, and reduced asthma symptoms to reduced migraine headaches and sinus attacks.

Because of the unique properties of Velvet Deer Antler, it may have applications to the following disorders:

  1. Obesity and Diabetes I & Diabetes II
  2. Osteoporosis
  3. Immune deficiencies
  4. Peripheral neuropathy
  5. Acute & chronic renal failure
  6. Congestive heart failure
  7. Growth retardation & dwarfism in children
  8. Protein wasting catabolic states associated with chronic illness.
  9. Neurological disorders - Alzheimer's, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Other demyelinating diseases, stroke & paralytic paraplegics.
  10. Those conditions of aging where increasing IGF-1 blood levels will enhance muscle and skeletal strength & exercise capacity.
  11. Fibromyalgia
  12. Body building & strength training
  13. Wound healing
  14. Diabetic nephropathy & retinopathy
  15. Atherosclerosis prevention

14. Additional References

Other Sources Cited in Velvet Deer Antler: The Ultimate Antiaging Supplement, Dr. Alex Duarte, O.D., Ph.D.

    1. Hson-Mon Chang and Paul Pui-Hay But. Pharmacology and Applications of Chinese Materia Medica. World Scientific Publishing Co. PTE. Ltd. 1987.
    2. Bensky, D., A. Gamble and T. Kaptchuk. Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia Medica . Eastland Press, Inc. 1986.
    3. Falloon, J. The Deer Farmer. Pile Wellington, New Zealand. p. 2. Sept. 1992.
    4. Houck, JC., and K. Vickers. “The Inhibition of Inflammation and Acceleration of Tissue Repair by Cartilage Powder.” Surgery. 51. May, 1962.
    5. Prudden, J., ER. Wolarsky, and L. Balassa. “The Acceleration of Healing.” The Journal of Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics. Vol. 128. 1969.
    6. Prudden, J. and J. Allen. “The Clinical Acceleration of Healing with a Cartilage Preparation: A Controlled Study.” The Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 192. May, 1965.
    7. Prudden, J. and G. Mishihara. “The Acceleration of Wound Healing with Cartilage-1.” The Journal of Surgery, Gynecology, and Obstetrics. September, 1957.
    8. Ghosh, P., M. Smith and C. Wells. Second Line Agents in the Treatment of Rheumatic Disease. Marcel Dekker. New York. 1992.
    9. Roden, L. “Effect of Hexosamines on the Synthesis of Chondroitin Sulfuric Acid In Vitro.” Ark. Keml. 10:3. 1956.
    10. Karzel, K. and R. Domenhoz. “Effects of Hexosamine Derivatives and Uronic Acid Derivatives, Glycosaminoglycan Metabolism of Fibroblast Cultures.” Pharmacology. 5. 337. 1971.
    11. Setnikar, I., R. Cereda and MA. Pacini. “Anti-Reactive Properties of Glucosamine Sulfate.” Arzn. Forsch. 41(2):157. 1991.
    12. Wang, B. et al. “Stimulating Effect of Deer Antler Extract on Protein Synthesis in Senescence-Accelerated Mice in Vivo.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 36(7):2593-98. 1988.
    13. Prudden, J. and J. Allen. “Clinical Acceleration of Wound Healing with a Cartilage Preparation: A Controlled Study.” The Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 192. May, 1965
    14. Prudden, J., ER. Wolarsky and L. Balassa. “The Acceleration of Healing.” The Journal of Surgery, Gynecology, and Obstetrics. Vol. 128. 1969.
    15. Bollet, AJ. “Stimulation of Protein-Chondroitin Sulfate Synthesis by Normal and Osteoarthritic Articular Cartilage.” Arthritis and Rheumatism. 11:663. 1968.
    16. This information is contained in Part II, “General Description of Catrix, Summary of Dosage Forms and the Results of Catrix Therapy”. The Journey, a professional publication distributed to doctors by Dr. J. Prudden.
    17. Rejholic, V. “Long Term Studies of Antiosteoarthritic Drugs.” Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 17(2):suppl. 1. Nov. 1987.
    18. Prudden, J., and L. Balassa. “The Biological Activity of Bovine Cartilage Preparations.” Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 3(4):298. 1974.
    19. Duarte, A. Jaws for Life: The Story of Shark Cartilage. Self Published. p. 18. 1993.
    20. Prudden, J. “The Treatment of Human Cancer with Agents Prepared from Bovine Cartilage.” Journal of Biological Response Modifzers. 4:551-558. 1985.
    21. Suttie, JM., et al. “The Velvet Antler Industry: Background and Research Findings. International Symposium on Cervi Parvum Cornu.” Abdo, J., ed. The Korean Society of Pharmacology, Seoul, Korea. Oct. 7, 1994.
    22. Falloon, J. The Deer Farmer. Pile Wellington, New Zealand. p. 2. Sept. 1992.
    23. Rejholec, V. “Long Term Studies of Antiosteoarthritic Drugs.” Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 17(2):suppl. 1. Nov. 1987.
    24. Morrison, LM., and OA. Schjeide. Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion of Acid Mucopolysaccharides Administered to Animals and Patients, Coronary Heart Disease and the Mucopolysaccharide (Glycosaminoglycans). CC. Thomas. Springfield. 109.
    25. Prudden, J. Bovine Cartilage. 4:551-584.
    26. Spark, RF. Male Sexual Health. Yonkers, New York. Consumer Reports Book. pp. 80,90,93. 1991.
    27. Ge, R., and P. Hong. “Effects of Ginsenosides and Pantocrine on the Reproductive Endocrine System in Male Rats.” Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 6(4):301-304. 1986.
    28. Renyong, GP., and P. Hong. “Effects of Ginsenosides and Pantocrine on the Reproductive Endocrine System in Male Rats.” Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 6(4):301-304. 1986.
    29. Wang, B., et al. “Stimulating Effect of Deer Antler Extract on Protein Synthesis in Senescence-Accelerated Mice in Vivo.” Chemical Parmacologic Bulletin. 36(7):2593-2598. 1988.
    30. Wang, B., et al. “Effects of Repeated Administration of Deer Antler Extract on Biochemical Changes Related to Aging in Senescence-Accelerated Mice.” Chemical Parmacologic Bulletin. 36(7):2587-2592. 1988.
    31. Schams D., Barth D., Heinze-Mutz EM., Pflaum G., Karg H. (1992) Antler Growth in Roe Deer: Effects of Casting and Correlations with Growth Hormone and Insulin Like Growth Factor I. In: Brown R.D. (eds) The Biology of Deer. Springer, New York, NY
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